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MMM 2022

November 07, 2022

Minneapolis, United States

Temporal Interference for Increased Focality of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) coils are usually specialized for use in either deep brain or focal stimulation. One of the challenges in the development of TMS therapy is the ability to deliver a focused magnetic field to the desires target in the brain. In the process of delivering a sufficiently strong H field to the target, surrounding areas of the brain can be stimulated unnecessarily. A new technique is used here whereby deep and focal stimulation can be achieved using temporal interference (TI). TI is a method that allows for control of steerability, focality, and depth of penetration. TI uses the frequency difference of two independent electric fields 1. The TI stimulation frequencies in at 10kHz and is filtered by the brain’s inherent lowpass 2 behavior 3. The frequency difference between the two induced electric fields results in an envelope which allows improved focality of stimulation. By using a coil assembly as shown in Figure 1, and using TI, the focality of the peak induced electric can be increased with respect to the surrounding area as shown inf Figure 2.. This focal point can also be steered along the centerline between the two coils. Our current work involves using Sim4Life software on 50 unique head models derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We are investigating the focality of the induced electric field using our coil design with TI signals. The results will be compared with the commonly used figure-of-eight TMS coil and the novel design Quadruple Butterfly Coil (QBC) 4.


1 M. Zaeimbashi, A. Khalifa, C. Dong, Y. Wei, S. Cash, and N. Sun, “Magnetic Temporal Interference For Noninvasive, High-resolution, and Localized Deep Brain Stimulation: Concept Validation,” 2020.
2 B. Hutcheon and Y. Yarom, “Resonance, oscillation and the intrinsic frequency preferences of neurons,” Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 216–222, 2000.
3 M. M. Sorkhabi, K. Wendt, and T. Denison, “Temporally Interfering TMS: Focal and Dynamic Stimulation Location,” 2020 42nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC), 2020.
4 P. Rastogi, “Novel coil designs for different neurological disorders in transcranial magnetic stimulation,” PhD Thesis, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA, 2019. Available: https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/etd/17547 Brain Mapping, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 82–96, 2007.

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