November 07, 2022
Minneapolis, United States
Quantification of Micromagnetic Parameters in Ultrathin Asymmetrically Sandwiched Magnetic Thin Films
Ultrathin asymmetrically sandwiched ferromagnetic films support fast moving chiral domain walls (DWs) and skyrmions 1,2. This paves the way to the realization of prospective racetrack memory concept, the performance of which is determined by the static and dynamic micromagnetic parameters 3. The necessity of having strong Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions (DMI) and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy requires the utilization of ultrathin (~1 nm) layers, which compromize structural quality and substantially enhance the damping for non-collinear magnetic textures.
Here, we present the experimental and theoretical analysis of ultrathin Co films with asymmetric interfaces //CrOx/Co/Pt and estimation of their micromagnetic parameters based on the analysis of the temperature dependence of magnetization as well as imaging of the DW morphology in stripes. We show that in the frame of magnon thermodynamics the best fit to the magnetometry data up to room temperature is obtained within a quasi-2D model, accounting for the lowest transversal magnons 4. The developed approach provides access to the exchange constant in asymmetric stacks, which is found to be about 1 order of magnitude smaller compared to the bulk Co. The experimentally observed tilt of magnetic DWs in stripes in statics can be explained based on two models: (I) A unidirectional tilt could appear in equilibrium as a result of the competition between the DMI and additional in-plane easy-axis anisotropy, which breaks the symmetry of the magnetic texture and introduce tilts 5. (II) A static DW tilt could appear due to the spatial variation of magnetic parameters, which introduce pinning centers for moving tilted DWs driven by magnetic field and can fix them at remanence 6. We found that the second model is in line with the experimental observations and allows to determine self-consistently the DW damping parameter and DMI constant for the particular layer stack. The DW damping is found to be about 0.1 and explained by the enhanced longitudinal relaxation mechanism. The latter is shown to be much stronger than the standard transversal relaxation and can be even stronger than the spin pumping contribution for the case of ultrathin magnetic films 7.
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3 C. Garg, S.-H. Yang, T. Phung, A. Pushp and S. S. P. Parkin, “Dramatic influence of curvature of nanowire on chiral domain wall velocity”, Sci. Adv. 3, e1602804 (2017).
4 I. A. Yastremsky, O. M. Volkov, M. Kopte, T. Kosub, S. Stienen, K. Lenz, J. Lindner, J. Fassbender, B. A. Ivanov and D. Makarov, “Thermodynamics and Exchange Stiffness of Asymmetrically Sandwiched Ultrathin Ferromagnetic Films with Perpendicular Anisotropy”, Phys. Rev. Appl. 12, 064038 (2019).
5 O. V. Pylypovskyi, V. P. Kravchuk, O. M. Volkov, J. Fassbender, D. D. Sheka and D. Makarov, “Unidirectional tilt of domain walls in equilibrium in biaxial stripes with Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction”, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 53, 395003 (2020).
6 O. M. Volkov, F. Kronast, C. Abert, E. Se. Oliveros Mata, T. Kosub, P. Makushko, D. Erb, O. V. Pylypovskyi, M.-A. Mawass, D. Sheka, S. Zhou, J. Fassbender and D. Makarov, “Domain-Wall Damping in Ultrathin Nanostripes with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction”, Phys. Rev. Appl. 15, 034038 (2021).
7 I. A. Yastremsky, J. Fassbender, B. A. Ivanov, and D. Makarov, “Enhanced Longitudinal Relaxation of Magnetic Solitons in Ultrathin Films”, Phys. Rev. Appl. 17, L061002 (2022).