The number of experimental techniques, and their capability to measure and image magnetic behavior, is constantly increasing. Analogously, the ability to computationally study magnetic systems using techniques such as micromagnetics or Monte Carlo is also growing. However, it is often not trivial to combine experimental and computational results such that one can predict the results of experimental techniques directly from computational magnetization structures.
We have produced the Python software package mag2exp 1, which integrates with the micromagnetic simulation environment Ubermag 2, 3, and enables realistic virtual experiments to be easily and quickly performed on magnetic structures using a range of experimental techniques. These techniques include Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, x-ray holography, small angle neutron scattering, torque magnetometry, along with other useful experimental capabilities. The mag2exp software is compatible with Jupyter Notebook allowing for the visualization of data and documentation of the entire simulation workflow, thus making the research more reproducible and re-usable 4. This package aims to help bridge some of the gap between computational simulations and experiments, leading to the potential for simulations to inform real world experiments and vice versa.
Here, we show how the mag2exp package can be used to study the magnetic behaviors for the system under investigation by converting a digital magnetization field to an experimental result. We also present the results of using the experimental techniques included in mag2exp on complex magnetization structures created using micromagnetic simulations such as magnetic skyrmions, vortices, and other solitons.
This work was financially supported by the EPSRC Program grant on Skyrmionics (EP/N032128/1).
Small angle neutron scattering pattern generated by mag2exp of a micromagnetic skyrmion lattice.
X-ray holography image generated by mag2exp of a mixed magnetization state.