Multimodal assessment of cerebral hemodynamics after pediatric hemorrhagic stroke secondary to cerebral arteriovenous malformation rupture
Introduction: Management after hemorrhagic stroke from cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) rupture remains controversial due to strategies to prevent hemorrhagic expansion while maintaining cerebral autoregulation (CA). We investigated associations of hemodynamics on outcomes after pediatric AVM rupture. Hypotheses: Measures of CA, baroreflex sensitivity (BRs) and heart rate variability (HRV) are associated with outcome at 12 months after pediatric cerebral AVM rupture. Methods: Children (<18 years old) with ruptured cerebral AVMs at a single critical care unit over 5 years were retrospectively analyzed. Continuous measurements of data including arterial blood pressure (ABP), intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated. CA measures include pressure reactivity index (PRx), weighted pressure-reactivity index (wPRx), pulse-amplitude index (PAx), and correlation coefficient between ICP pulse amplitude (AMP) and CPP (RAC). Model-based indices of HRV, BRs, CA and estimations of optimal CPP (CPP-Opt) were computed along with percent of time below lower limits of autoregulation (LLA). Outcomes were determined using Pediatric Glasgow Outcome Score - Extended (GOSE-Peds) at 12 months. Patients with scores below 5 were grouped as "unfavorable outcomes". Association of biomarkers with outcome was determined with Wilcoxon singed rank test. Results: 14 children who underwent multimodal monitoring (6 female; mean IQR age, 10.57 1.5) were included. 8/14 children underwent intraparenchymal ICP monitoring from which CA was measured. Unfavorable outcomes were associated with lower median BRs values as compared to favorable outcomes (p=0.001) and lower HRV as compared to favorable outcome (p=0.026). Favorable outcome was consistent with decreased percent time below LLA based upon PAx and RAC, although this study was not powered for statistical significance (p=0.057). Conclusion: Decreased BRs and HRV were associated with unfavorable outcomes in children after hemorrhagic stroke from AVM rupture. Prospective studies are warranted to understand CA and its impact on outcomes.